Consequentialism Because deontological theories are best understood in contrast to consequentialist ones, a brief look at consequentialism and a survey of the problems with it that motivate its deontological opponents, provides a helpful prelude to taking up deontological theories themselves.
Kantian ethics Immanuel Kant 's theory of ethics is considered deontological for several different reasons. Kant's argument that to act in the morally right way one must act purely from duty begins with an argument that the highest good must be both good in itself and good without qualification.
Kant then argues that those things that are usually thought to be good, such as intelligenceperseverance and pleasurefail to be either intrinsically good or good without qualification. Pleasure, for example, appears not to be good without qualification, because when people take pleasure in watching someone suffer, this seems to make the situation ethically worse.
He concludes that there is only one thing that is truly good: Nothing in the world—indeed nothing even beyond the world—can possibly be conceived which could be called good without qualification except a good will.
Instead, he claims, a person has a good will when he 'acts out of respect for the moral law'. So, the only thing that is truly good in itself is a good will, and a good will is only good when the willer chooses to do something because it is that person's duty, i.
He defines respect as "the concept of a worth which thwarts my self-love". Act only according to that maxim by which you can also will that it would become a universal law.
Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at Key features of deontology same time as an end.
Every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in a universal kingdom of ends. Kant argued that the only absolutely good thing is a good will, and so the single determining factor of whether an action is morally right is the will, or motive of the person doing it.
If they are acting on a bad maxim, e. For a lie always harms another; if not some human being, then it nevertheless does harm to humanity in general, inasmuch as it vitiates the very source of right [Rechtsquelle] All practical principles of right must contain rigorous truth This is because such exceptions would destroy the universality on account of which alone they bear the name of principles.
Divine command theory Although not all deontologists are religious, some believe in the 'divine command theory', which is actually a cluster of related theories which essentially state that an action is right if God has decreed that it is right. If God commands people not to work on Sabbaththen people act rightly if they do not work on Sabbath because God has commanded that they do not do so.
If they do not work on Sabbath because they are lazy, then their action is not truly speaking "right", even though the actual physical action performed is the same. If God commands not to covet a neighbour's goods, this theory holds that it would be immoral to do so, even if coveting provides the beneficial outcome of a drive to succeed or do well.
One thing that clearly distinguishes Kantian deontologism from divine command deontology is that Kantianism maintains that man, as a rational being, makes the moral law universal, whereas divine command maintains that God makes the moral law universal.
Trolley problemConsequentialismUtilitarianismand Effective altruism Frances Kamm 's "Principle of Permissible Harm" is an effort to derive a deontological constraint which coheres with our considered case judgments while also relying heavily on Kant's categorical imperative.
This principle is meant to address what Kamm feels are most people's considered case judgments, many of which involve deontological intuitions.
For instance, Kamm argues that we believe it would be impermissible to kill one person to harvest his organs in order to save the lives of five others. Yet, we think it is morally permissible to divert a runaway trolley that would otherwise kill five innocent and immobile people onto a side track where one innocent and immobile person will be killed.
Kamm believes the Principle of Permissible Harm explains the moral difference between these and other cases, and more importantly expresses a constraint telling us exactly when we may not act to bring about good ends—such as in the organ harvesting case.
InKamm published a book that presents new theory that incorporates aspects of her "Principle of Permissible Harm", the "Doctrine of Productive Purity". Attempts have been made to reconcile deontology with virtue-based ethics and consequentialism.
Iain King 's book How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time uses quasi-realism and a modified form of utilitarianism to develop deontological principles which are compatible with ethics based on virtues and consequences.Deontology is the ethics of duty, proposed by Kant.
This approach challenges the view that what is considered morally good can be evaluated in terms of a non-moral concept, such as happiness.
Kant says that "happiness is not an ideal of reason but imagination." . Karen Ingleby - Deontology A) Clarify the key features of a deontological theory of ethics The deontological theory of ethics I shall be looking at is the theory of Kantian deontology.
Immanuel Kant was born in in K nigsberg where he spent the majority of his life lecturing on science and mathematics before expanding and teaching most. The word deontology derives from the Greek words for duty (deon) and science (or study) of (logos).In contemporary moral philosophy, deontology is one of those kinds of normative theories regarding which choices are morally required, forbidden, or permitted.
Basic Features Of Deontological Bioethics Philosophy Essay. Print Reference this.
Published: 23rd March, Deontological comes from the Greek root "deon" which means "Obligatory" or "Duty" so deontology is concerned with the study of duty1. Basic Features of Deontological Bioethics. In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action.
Deontology is the ethics of duty, proposed by Kant. This approach challenges the view that what is considered morally good can be evaluated in terms of a non-moral concept, such as happiness.
Clarify the Key Features of a Deontological Theory of Ethics Essay Sample. The deontological theory of ethics I shall be looking at is the theory of Kantian deontology. Karen Ingleby - Deontology A) Clarify the key features of a deontological theory of ethics The deontological theory of ethics I shall be looking at is the theory of Kantian deontology. Immanuel Kant was born in in K nigsberg where he spent the majority of his life lecturing on science and mathematics before expanding and teaching most. Deontology is the ethics of duty, proposed by Kant. This approach challenges the view that what is considered morally good can be evaluated in terms of a non-moral concept, such as happiness. Kant says that "happiness is not an ideal of reason but imagination." .
Kant says that "happiness is not an ideal of reason but imagination." The approach says to conclude whether.