Baroque painting in Central and South America is basically an extension of that of Spain and Portugal, and even the best rarely rises to the general standard of the European schools.
The changing names may suggest genuine migrations or confederations of Native people throughout the seventeenth century, but also show how imperfect records contribute to the appearance and disappearance of Indigenous groups in the historical record. Many Italian immigrants and organizations had pushed for commemorations of Columbus, a Genoese voyager.
Also ironic were the justifications offered for making it a national and legal holiday in As the legend goes, starting with Columbus, the Spanish annihilated the Indigenous population of the Caribbean.
Based in truths about war, disease, and enslavement of the Native Caribbean population, anti-Spanish propaganda among English, French, and Dutch colonizers disseminated the Black Legend in the sixteenth and seventeenth century for their own purposes.
They wanted to demonstrate either that lands in America were empty or that decimated Native polities were desirous of other European nations to protect and rule them.
These new colonizers, quick to condemn Spanish slaughters, nevertheless continued both warfare and enslavement against Indigenous peoples who resisted colonization.
Vincent and Dominica, until the late eighteenth century. The Black Legend speaks to real historical violence, but it fails to include Indigenous Caribbean people as historical shapers, agitators, laborers, resistors, and simply, survivors, from to the present day.
Charts created by early explorers of the region, such as Lawrence Keymis and Robert Harcourtoften represent this diversity better than colonial and governmental correspondence found in later seventeenth-century archives.
My collaborator Colleen Truskey and I created an interactive digital map based on a few of these sources. We endeavored to better represent the numerous groups in the Guiana region in the age of the first colonial attempts.
Still, I could not align all of the historical names given by these Europeans with contemporary Indigenous peoples or linguistic groups. For instance, the Pemon and Patamona Kapon people who reside in the Republic of Guyana today, and who were very important in early sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European trade networks, do not appear at all on the charts or maps we used as source material for the digital map.
Research methodologies that involve community engagement and the use of Indigenous-made material culture and documents serve as important correctives to both the labeling and stereotyping that emerge from European archives, maps, and printed materials.
Scholars of Native American and Indigenous studies have advocated for these methods, which are increasingly adopted in history as well. Native oral traditions help subvert stereotypes about Indigenous people that prevail in European documentation.
A number of Native traditions collected from around the Marowijne river of Suriname, however, demonstrate that Europeans were similarly rumored to be cannibalistic.
These traditions depict colonizing Europeans as monstrous priests appearing from rivers to stalk young Native men, or as military figures who looked like man-eating wood stumps. Today, Indigenous groups within the Caribbean combat that erasure with physical and digital sites to educate the general public about their lives, histories, customs, and traditions.
As in the United States, Indigenous groups in the Caribbean struggle to win respect for claims over ancestral land and resources. This is particularly true in areas where mining and logging are major industries, although the tide may be turning.
Increasingly, Indigenous groups are banding together to fight against what they suffer collectively. For further reading on how the historical erasure of Indigenous peoples in the Caribbean affects contemporary Indigenous communities and politics, see the work of scholars Melanie NewtonShona Jacksonand Maximilian Forte.
She is the author of an article and a chapter on colonization and enslavement of Native People in the Lesser Antilles and Guiana regions of the Caribbean. For more pieces on the Caribbean, click here.
For another reflection on Columbus Day, read this piece. Europe and the Native Caribbean, — New York, Information shared with permission.Slavery, for example, was abolished in the British Caribbean in , the French Caribbean in , the Dutch Caribbean in , and in Cuba in And while most territories became independent in the s and s, some became independent much earlier and others are still (semi) dependent.
History, according to the Oxford Dictionary, is the continuous record of events, especially those that are public. The history of the Caribbean is a diverse and intriguing one seeing as our present day country is one of cultural diversity, often referred to by locals as a “culture pot”.
President Donald J. Trump Proclaims June as National Caribbean-American Heritage Month. Issued on: May 31, During Caribbean-American Heritage Month, we honor America’s long-shared history with our neighbors in the Caribbean and celebrate the .
Central America makes up most of the tapering isthmus that separates the Pacific Ocean, to the west, from the Caribbean Sea.
It extends in an arc roughly 1, miles (1, km) long from the northwest to . The new research finally provides concrete proof that indigenous ancestry in the region has survived to the present day.
Explore further: Drones help write new history of Caribbean. In , Jamaica and ten (10) other Caribbean countries formed the Federation of the West Indies. The concept of Caribbean unity was soon abandoned in when Jamaicans voted against the Federation of the West Indies.