Comparative ethonographic review

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Comparative ethonographic review

He argued that peasant rebellions can only be understood in the light of a peasant system of values which is irrevocably linked to their subsistence requirements.

In Weapons of the Weak he takes up a similar subject, this time looking at ordinary, everyday peasant resistance and the reasons open revolts are so rare.

Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. comparative ethonographic review. marriage is one necessary representation of the society’s culture. Marriage regulates, organizes and legitimizes sexual relations. Human societies have many different marriage systems, and in my review of “Everyday Life in Southeast Asia” and “The Dobe Ju/. The best possible review would be a describes the general ethonographic back- ground, "a description of the adult world into which the child is born." (p. 6) The second part offers a detailed description of Comparative Education Review works through the successive monographs.

One of his main goals is to resolve empirically debates within political science over the concepts of false consciousness and hegemony. Scott himself is a political scientist by training, Comparative ethonographic review his study is based on fourteen months anthropological fieldwork carried out in the late s in the small seventy household village of Sedaka Kedah state, Malaysia.

The first chapter introduces us to Sedaka, with a brief description of two individuals at extreme ends of the social spectrum and a look at the roles they or rather the stories told about them play in the ideological conflict between rich and poor in the village.

The second presents the basic motivation for the study; Scott feels that inordinate attention has been paid to the rare occurrences of open revolt by peasants, and too little to ordinary, everyday forms of resistance and their symbolic and ideological underpinnings.

Comparative ethonographic review

He also stresses the importance of placing individual agents, in their particular settings, at the centre of analysis. The third and fourth chapters Comparative ethonographic review the economic and political background to the study. Scott begins with Malaysia, then narrows in on Kedah State, the Muda plain and the village Comparative ethonographic review Sedaka itself.

He then recounts its economic and social history over the decade or so preceding, concentrating on such things as land tenure and ownership, income distributions and the effects of the Green Revolution.

This is set within the background of national politics. With the next chapter we move into the ethnography proper; Scott now describes the different interpretations placed by the inhabitants of Sedaka on the history he has just described.

While the villagers still share a common universe of discourse and have access to the same cultural materials, class divisions are intensifying, largely as a result of the divergent effects of the Green Revolution on rich and poor; the two groups tell very different histories of the village.

Particular changes that are the subject of dissension include a move to rents paid before rather than after the harvest, the introduction of combine harvesters, a decline in the availability of land and the frequency and generosity of zakat peribadi religious charity and feast-giving.

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It is significant that the poor villagers blame their richer neighbours for what is happening, not absentee Chinese landlords or the government; they have no claims of community and obligation on the latter.

The following chapters look at how these interpretations clash in practice.

Comparative ethonographic review

Scott first analyses the language associated with exploitation and the ways in which the truth is distorted to serve class interests. The rich rationalise their exploitation and refusal to abide by the traditional dictates of community feeling and tolong-menolong mutual help by such devices as claiming to be poor themselves or denying the morality of the poor; they do not attack the shared norms of the village directly.

The poor cling to a disappearing way of life; while not in actual danger of starving, they are fighting a losing battle to retain their status as full members of the community.

Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (James Scott)

Several case studies are used to illustrate this: Scott then goes on to look at forms of resistance that go beyond words — striking against the introduction of combine harvesters, petty theft, the killing of animals, and so on.

The overt mechanisms of physical repression are also described, but it is the need to make a living which is most influential in compelling resistance to be covert. Scott considers the consequences of all this for definitions of resistance. Four criteria have commonly been required for 'genuine' resistance: None of these requirements make sense when one looks at Sedaka.

In the last chapter Scott presents his main theoretical theses. Material base and normative superstructure in Sedaka are inextricably interwoven. The rich expend effort and material in molding the latter to suit their own ends at the expense of the poor, who oppose them with whatever means are available.

And, at least in Sedaka, it is political power that underlies exploitation, not the relations of production.

As a result, Scott suggests that the ideological superstructure must always be seen as a product of struggle, not as something preexisting. As for hegemony, Scott argues that: If anything, in Sedaka it is the rich who are busy breaking the ideological "hegemony" of the poor.

He suggests that this analysis applies to the working class as well as to peasants, and that there is a clear need to rethink concepts of hegemony and ideological domination. In Weapons of the Weak Scott draws on an impressively wide range of material, both theoretical and comparative.

As well as studies of other peasant communities within Malaysia and Southeast Asia, he also uses historical work on European peasants following historians such as Bloch, Hobsbawm and Thompson and slaves in the United States.

Here, as well as the historians, Scott also draws on sources such as folk songs and novels, managing to quote from Dickens, Balzac, Zola, Disraeli, George Eliot and Brecht.

It might have been interesting to compare these with Malay writers writing about modern Malay peasants, but Scott appears to have left this for a more recent book, Domination and the Arts of Resistance.

The principal theoretical source is, of course, the running debate within Marxism over the concepts of false consciousness and hegemony, following thinkers such as Gramsci, Lukacs, Althusser and Habermas.

Weapons of the Weak is not just a political study, however; it is also an outstanding work of ethnography. Based on thorough research and careful, perceptive fieldwork, it manages to avoid some of the failings of traditional ethnography by its emphasis on the centrality of individual human beings in their particular situations.

Whether or not it offers definitive answers to the questions it investigates, it certainly provides some solid ground to stand on in looking for them.

More generally, Weapons of the Weak is an example of how much anthropology has to contribute to history and political science. To historians it offers one way around the problem - almost paradox - of how to reconstruct the unwritten history of the illiterate from written records something which appears very clearly in a work like Hobsbawm and Rude's Captain Swing.

To political scientists it offers the essential corrective of empirical evidence, without which their theorising tends to lose contact with reality.Book Reviews. Linda Allen, et al.:The Photographs of Baldwin Spencer - Aboriginal photographs from to Ilisa Barbash, Lucien Taylor: Cross-Cultural Filmmaking A Handbook for Making Documentary and Ethnographic Films and Videos.

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comparative ethonographic review Essay Words | 12 Pages University of Singapore Sociology Department SC Anthropology and the Human Condition Comparative Ethnographic Review Essay It would seem that in every society, marriage is one necessary representation of the society’s culture.

SUGGESTIONS FOR ETHNOGRAPHIES For basic information on what “ethnographies” are all about, see “Background to Ethnography” (below). In order to do an ethnography, Review what has been published (books, periodicals, newspapers, Internet) and gather basic information on your topic.

In Weapons of the Weak Scott draws on an impressively wide range of material, both theoretical and comparative. As well as studies of other peasant communities within Malaysia and Southeast Asia, he also uses historical work on European peasants (following historians such as Bloch, Hobsbawm and Thompson) and slaves in the United States.

Global and Comparative Ethnography - Oxford University Press

particular the use of critical ethnography in the study of comparative education. Since the term is relatively new, some introduction will first be given to other approaches, their origins, and their relationship to critical Comparative Education Review 1. MASEMANN in social science in general as well as in the study of comparative education.

Comparative ethnography | media/anthropology