Civilization The Indus valley civilization was the largest of four ancient urban civilizations Mesopotamia, Egypt, South Asia, and China. The Indus civilization was huge; it covered from Mumbai in Marashta, India in south up to Himalayas and northern Afghanistan in north. The far west of the Indus civilization is as far west as Arabian Sea coast in Baluchistan, Pakistan next to the Iranian border.
Excavations first conducted inin the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, both now in Pakistan, pointed to a highly complex civilization that first developed some 4, years ago, and subsequent archaeological and historical research has now furnished us with a more detailed picture of the Indus Valley Civilization and its inhabitants.
The Indus Valley people were most likely Dravidians, who may have been pushed down into south India when the Aryans, with their more advanced military technology, commenced their migrations to India around 2, BCE.
Though the Indus Valley script remains undeciphered down to the present day, the numerous seals discovered during the excavations, as well as statuary and pottery, not to mention the ruins of numerous Indus Valley cities, have enabled scholars to construct a reasonably plausible account of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Some kind of centralized state, and certainly fairly extensive town planning, is suggested by the layout of the great cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The same kind of burnt brick appears to have been used in the construction of buildings in cities that were as much as several hundred miles apart.
The weights and measures show a very considerable regularity. The Indus Valley people domesticated animals, and harvested various crops, such as cotton, sesame, peas, barley, and cotton. They may also have been a sea-faring people, and it is rather interesting that Indus Valley seals have been dug up in such places as Sumer.
The Indus Valley people had a merchant class that, evidence suggests, engaged in extensive trading. Neither Harappa nor Mohenjodaro show any evidence of fire altars, and consequently one can reasonably conjecture that the various rituals around the fire which are so critical in Hinduism were introduced later by the Aryans.
The Indus Valley people do not appear to have been in possession of the horse: Other than the archaeological ruins of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, these seals provide the most detailed clues about the character of the Indus Valley people. The horned bull appears in numerous Central Asian figures as well; it is also important to note that Shiva is not one of the gods invoked in the Rig Veda.
The revered cow of the Hindus also does not appear on the seals. The women portrayed on the seals are shown with elaborate coiffures, sporting heavy jewelry, suggesting that the Indus Valley people were an urbane people with cultivated tastes and a refined aesthetic sensibility. A few thousand seals have been discovered in Indus Valley cities, showing some pictographs: The Indus Valley civilization raises a great many, largely unresolved, questions.
Why did this civilization, considering its sophistication, not spread beyond the Indus Valley? In general, the area where the Indus valley cities developed is arid, and one can surmise that urban development took place along a river that flew through a virtual desert. The Indus Valley people did not develop agriculture on any large scale, and consequently did not have to clear away a heavy growth of forest.
Nor did they have the technology for that, since they were confined to using bronze or stone implements. They did not practice canal irrigation and did not have the heavy plough.
Most significantly, under what circumstances did the Indus Valley cities undergo a decline? The first attacks on outlying villages by Aryans appear to have taken place around 2, BCE near Baluchistan, and of the major cities, at least Harappa was quite likely over-run by the Aryans.
In the Rig Veda there is mention of a Vedic war god, Indra, destroying some forts and citadels, which could have included Harappa and some other Indus Valley cities.
The conventional historical narrative speaks of a cataclysmic blow that struck the Indus Valley Civilization around 1, BCE, but that would not explain why settlements at a distance of several hundred miles from each other were all eradicated.
The most compelling historical narrative still suggests that the demise and eventual disappearance of the Indus Valley Civilization, which owed something to internal decline, nonetheless was facilitated by the arrival in India of the Aryans.The Harappan or Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient culture of South Asia that stretched from Afghanistan to Bangladesh during the period from BC to around BC.
The Harappans were. The image is published in a blog entry by Alessandro Ceccarelli of the Two Rains Project at the University of Cambridge, source of some of the most interesting recent research on the agriculture and demise of the ancient Indus civilization.
The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and northwest India today, on the fertile flood plain of the Indus River and its vicinity.
Evidence of religious practices in this area date back approximately to BCE. The Harappan or Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient culture of South Asia that stretched from Afghanistan to Bangladesh during the period from BC to around BC.
With that being said, my nomination for most advanced ancient civilization is Indus River Valley. Along with Buddhism, the Indian school of sciences, logic, spirituality, language spread throughout Asia and South East Asia.
Also, interactions went up west as far as to Greece.
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATIONINDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION Also referred to as the Harappa culture, the Indus Valley civilization was the earliest urban, state-level society in South Asia (– b.c.) and was contemporaneous with state-level societies in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Source for information on Indus Valley Civilization: Encyclopedia of India dictionary.